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Charge, voltage, current and resistance

  • Charge can be positive or negative, where the electron has a negative charge while the proton has a positive charge. Charge is measured in Coulombs. opposite charges attract each other while similar charges repel.
  • Voltage is the difference in charge between two points. Voltage is measured in Volts.
  • Current is the rate at which charge is flowing. Current is measured in Amperes
  • Resistance is a material's tendency to resist the flow of charge (current). Resistance is measured Ohm.

Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

The constant of proportionality is called the resistance, R.

Ohm's Law

Ohm’s law is given as follows:

V = I R

Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the voltage measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

Kirchhoff’s Law

Kirchhoff described 2 laws as follows:-

1.      Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL):- This law is also called Kirchhoff's first law, Kirchhoff's point rule, or Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal rule).

This law states that, for any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

or equivalently:

The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.


2.     Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): This law is also called Kirchhoff's second lawKirchhoff's loop (or meshrule, and Kirchhoff's second rule.

This law states that:

   The directed sum of the potential differences (voltages) around any closed loop is zero.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

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