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Write a Program to implement Insertion sort

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Ques. Write a Program to implement Insertion sort

Answer : 

Insertion sort : It is an sorting  algorithm in which  first element in the array is assumed as sorted, even if it is an unsorted . then, each element in the array is checked with the previous elements, resulting in a growing sorted output list. With each iteration, the sorting algorithm removes one element at a time and finds the appropriate location within the sorted array and inserts it there. The iteration continues until the whole list is sorted.

Advantage : 

  1. It is more efficient than other similar algorithms such as bubble sort or selection sort.
  2. It is simple to implement and is quite efficient for small sets of data.

Disadvantage : 

  1. an insertion sort is less efficient on larger data sets and less efficient than the heap sort or quick sort algorithms.

Algorithm : 

for j=2 to a.length 

key = a[j]

insert a[j] into sorted sequence a[1.........j-1]

i = j - 1

while i > 0  and a[i] > key 

a[i + 1] = a[i]

 i = i - 1

 a[i + 1] = key

For eg : [ 13, 12, 14, 5, 6 ]

Let 's loop for i = 1 to 4 

i = 1. as 12 is smaller than 13, move 13 and insert 12 before 13
[12, 13, 14, 5, 6 ]

i = 2. 14 will remain at same location as all elements in A[0..I-1] are smaller than 14
[12, 13, 14, 5, 6]

i = 3. 5 will move at beginning and other elements from 12 to 14 will move one position to front from their current location.
[5, 12, 13, 14, 6]

i = 4. 6 will move to position after 5, and elements from 11 to 13 will move one position to front  of their current position.

[5, 6, 12, 13, 14]

Program : 

a=[5, 6, 12, 13, 14]

b=[]

for i in range(1,len(a)):

    key = a[i]

    j = i-1  

   while j>0 and a[j-1]>key:  

            a[j+1]=a[j] 

             j = j-1  

         a[j+1] = key  

print("elements in sorted order are ")  

for i in a:  

    b.append(i) 

print(b)  


Output :

elements in sorted order are 

[5, 6, 12, 13, 14]


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