# Operators : Bitwise Operators

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Bitwise operators can be used to perform bit level operation on variables. Below is a list of all six bitwise operators supported in C:

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## 1 Answer

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by Goeduhub's Expert (8.3k points)

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Bitwise operators can be used to perform bit level operation on variables. Below is a list of all six bitwise operators supported in C:

### Symbol                     Operator

&           bitwise AND

|            bitwise inclusive OR

^            bitwise exclusive OR (XOR)

~           bitwise not (one's complement)

<<          logical left shift

>>          logical right shift

Following program illustrates the use of all bitwise operators:

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)

unsigned int a = 29;    /* 29 = 0001 1101 */     unsigned int b = 48;    /* 48 = 0011 0000 */   int c = 0;

c = a & b;              /* 32 = 0001 0000 */   printf("%d & %d = %d\n", a, b, c );

c = a | b;              /* 61 = 0011 1101 */   printf("%d | %d = %d\n", a, b, c );

c = a ^ b;              /* 45 = 0010 1101 */   printf("%d ^ %d = %d\n", a, b, c );

c = ~a;                 /* -30 = 1110 0010 */   printf("~%d = %d\n", a, c );

c = a << 2;             /* 116 = 0111 0100 */   printf("%d << 2 = %d\n", a, c );

c = a >> 2;             /* 7 = 0000 0111 */   printf("%d >> 2 = %d\n", a, c );

return 0; }

Bitwise operations with signed types should be avoided because the sign bit of such a bit representation has a particular meaning. Particular restrictions apply to the shift operators:

• Left shifting a 1 bit into the signed bit is erroneous and leads to undeﬁned behavior.
• Right shifting a negative value (with sign bit 1) is implementation deﬁned and therefore not portable.
• If the value of the right operand of a shift operator is negative or is greater than or equal to the width of the promoted left operand, the behavior is undeﬁned.

### Masking:

Masking refers to the process of extracting the desired bits from (or transforming the desired bits in) a variable by using logical bitwise operations. The operand (a constant or variable) that is used to perform masking is called a mask.

Masking is used in many diﬀerent ways:

• To decide the bit pattern of an integer variable.
• To copy a portion of a given bit pattern to a new variable, while the remainder of the new variable is ﬁlled with 0s (using bitwise AND)
• To copy a portion of a given bit pattern to a new variable, while the remainder of the new variable is ﬁlled with 1s (using bitwise OR).
• To copy a portion of a given bit pattern to a new variable, while the remainder of the original bit pattern is inverted within the new variable (using bitwise exclusive OR).

#include <limits.h>

void bit_pattern(int u)

{

int i, x, word;

unsigned mask = 1;

word = CHAR_BIT * sizeof(int);

mask = mask << (word - 1);    /* shift 1 to the leftmost position */

for(i = 1; i <= word; i++)

{

x = (u & mask) ? 1 : 0;  /* identify the bit */

printf("%d", x);         /* print bit value */

mask >>= 1;              /* shift mask to the right by 1 bit */

}