Operating Systems Interview Questions Set 1
Q.1. What is an operating system?
Answer:- The operating system is a software program that facilitates computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. It is the most important part of a computer system without it computer is just like a box.
Q.2. What is the main purpose of an operating system?
- It is designed to make sure that a computer system performs well by managing its computational activities.
- It provides an environment for the development and execution of programs.
Q.3. What is kernel?
Answer:- A kernel is the core of every operating system. It connects applications to the actual processing of data. It also manages all communications between software and hardware components to ensure usability and reliability.
Q.4. What is demand paging?
Answer:- Demand paging is referred when not all of a process’s pages are in the RAM, then the OS brings the missing(and required) pages from the disk into the RAM.
Q.5. What Are Real-time Systems?
Answer:- Real-time systems are used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor. It has well defined and fixed time constraints.
Q.6. What are the advantages of a multiprocessor system?
Answer:- With an increased number of processors, there is a considerable increase in throughput. It can also save more money because they can share resources. Finally, overall reliability is increased as well.
Q.7. What is time- sharing system?
Answer:- In a Time-sharing system, the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them, also known as multitasking. This process happens so fast that users can interact with each program while it is running.
Q.8. How does swapping result in better memory management?
Answer:- During regular intervals that are set by the operating system, processes can be copied from main memory to a backing store, and then copied back later. Swapping allows more operations to be run that can fit into memory at one time.
Q.9. When Does Thrashing Occur?
Answer:- Thrashing refers to an instance of high paging activity. This happens when it is spending more time paging instead of executing.
Q.10. What are the four necessary and sufficient conditions behind the deadlock?
Answer:- These are the 4 conditions:
- Mutual Exclusion Condition: It specifies that the resources involved are non-sharable.
- Hold and Wait Condition: It specifies that there must be a process that is holding a resource already allocated to it while waiting for additional resource that are currently being held by other processes.
- No-Preemptive Condition: Resources cannot be taken away while they are being used by processes.
- Circular Wait Condition: It is an explanation of the second condition. It specifies that the processes in the system form a circular list or a chain where each process in the chain is waiting for a resource held by next process in the chain.
Q.11. What are the different types of CPU registers in a typical operating system design?
- Index Registers
- Stack Pointer
- General Purpose Registers
Q.12. What is deadlock? Explain.
Answer:- Deadlock is a specific situation or condition where two processes are waiting for each other to complete so that they can start. But this situation causes hang for both of them.
Q.13. What is semaphore?
Answer:- Semaphore is a protected variable or abstract data type that is used to lock the resource being used. The value of the semaphore indicates the status of a common resource.
There are two types of semaphore:
- Binary semaphores
- Counting semaphores
Q.14. What is starvation and aging in Operating System?
Answer:- Starvation is Resource management problem. In this problem, a waiting process does not get the resources it needs for a long time because the resources are being allocated to other processes.
Aging is a technique used to avoid the starvation in resource scheduling system.
Q.15. What Is Spooling?
Answer:- Spooling is normally associated with printing. When different applications want to send an output to the printer at the same time, spooling takes all of these print jobs into a disk file and queues them accordingly to the printer.
Q.16. What Is Preemptive Multitasking?
Answer:- Preemptive multitasking allows an operating system to switch between software programs. This in turn allows multiple programs to run without necessarily taking complete control over the processor and resulting in system crashes.
Q.17. What Are Turnaround Time And Response Time?
Answer:- Turnaround time is the interval between the submission of a job and its completion. Response time is the interval between submission of a request, and the first response to that request.
Q.18. What Is Fragmentation?
Answer:- Fragmentation is memory wasted. It can be internal if we are dealing with systems that have fixed-sized allocation units, or external if we are dealing with systems that have variable-sized allocation units.
Q.19.Differentiate Logical From Physical Address Space.?
Answer:- Logical address refers to the address that is generated by the CPU. On the other hand, physical address refers to the address that is seen by the memory unit.
Q.20. How Does Dynamic Loading Aid In Better Memory Space Utilization?
Answer:- With dynamic loading, a routine is not loaded until it is called. This method is especially useful when large amounts of code are needed in order to handle infrequently occurring cases such as error routines.
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