Components of RASPBERRY-PI
1. Micro-USB Power Supply: A 5V micro USB typically powers the Raspberry Pi. But how much current (in milliamps or amps) the Pi requires to function depends on your usage.
The recommended amount is between 700mA for a Raspberry Pi Model A, and up to 2.5A for a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B.
The Raspberry Pi boards typically draw much lower amounts, between 200 and 500mA.
Usage depends on what you’re doing with the Pi. Playing video and browsing the web draws more power than idling and booting. It also depends on what devices you have connected; some keyboards and mice draw more power than others.
2. SD Card Slot: Secure Digital Card slot (SD Card) slot is a solid-state removable storage device which is required to run operating systems on Raspberry Pi as Raspberry Pi doesn’t have any onboard memory and data storage functionality. Raspberry Pi supports both SDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity) and SDXC (Secure Digital eXtended Capacity). The best suited card for proper running of all sorts of operating systems without any hiccup is Class 10 with speed @ 10MB/sec.
3. USB Ports & Ethernet Port:
USB Port: The number and type of USB ports on Raspberry Pi depends on the model. The Raspberry Pi Model B is equipped with two USB 2.0 ports; the B+, 2B, 3B and 3B+ have four USB 2.0 ports. The Pi 4 has two USB 2.0 ports and two USB 3.0 ports.
In all models prior to the Pi 4, the USB ports connect to a combo hub/Ethernet chip, which is itself a USB device connected to the single upstream USB port on BCM2835. On the Pi 4, the USB hub chip is connected to the SoC using a PCIe bus. On the Model A and Zero range, the single USB 2.0 port is directly wired to the SoC.
Ethernet Port: In order to enable Internet connection online and to update the software’s or to install latest packages from online repositories, Raspberry Pi supports Ethernet Connection. Raspberry Pi (Every Model) comprise of RJ45 Ethernet Jack which supports CAT5/6 cables. It enables Raspberry Pi to be connected to Wireless Router, ADSL Model or any other Internet connectivity sharing device.
4. HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface): HDMI Port enables Raspberry Pi to be connected to HDTV via HDMI cable. Raspberry Pi supports maximum resolution of 1920x1200. With the help of HDMI Full HD MPEG-4 can be streamed via HDMI.
5. Video Out (RCA Cable): In addition to HDMI Connectivity which facilitates HD connection, Raspberry Pi also has provision to be connected to standard monitor or TV using RCA video cable. RCA cable is less expensive as compared to HDMI but along with RCA cable, the user has to buy 3.5mm stereo cable for audio facilitation.
The Pi Model B+, Pi 2, Pi 3 and Pi 4 features a 4-pole 3.5mm audio jack which also includes the composite video signal. This has allowed for the removal of the composite video socket found on the original Model B.
The new jack is a 4-pole socket which carries both audio and video signals. It’s similar to sockets found on other multimedia devices such as iPods, MP3 players and smart-phones. It now used on the A+, B+, Pi 2, Pi 3 and Pi 4.
6. Status Led’s: Raspberry Pi comprise of 5 main LED’s performing the following functions:
I. ACT: (Color-Green): The main function of ACT LED is to show card status. Normally flashing during any SD Card activity performed by end user.
II. PWR: (Color-Red): The main function of PWR led is power. This led is continuously ON when raspberry Pi is switched on and keep on till switched off.
III. FDX: (Color-Orange): The main function of FDX led is full duplex. This Led is powered on when Ethernet connection is of Full Duplex type.
IV. LNK: (Color- Orange): The function performed by LNK led is Link. This LED is powered on when Ethernet connection is established and packet transfer starts taking place.
V. 100: (Color-Orange): The 100 Led objective is to show 100 Mbps connection. When any connection is established at Ethernet port, this LED only gets on when connection is of 100 Mbps speed and gets powered off when connection is at 10 Mbps.
7. GPIO (General Purpose Input Output): GPIO facilitates connecting all sorts of peripheral devices to Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi has onboard GPIO with 40 pins, 26 of which are used as digital inputs or outputs. More importantly, 9 of the 14 new GPIO pins are dedicated inputs/outputs, it also facilitates the onboard UART, I2C, SPI Bus and still large amount of free GPIO pins are there for add-on attachments.
8. CSI Camera Connector: Raspberry Pi has a Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) Camera Serial Interface Type 2 (CSI-2). CSI-2 facilitates connection of small camera to Broadcom BCM 2835 processor. The function of this interface is to standardize the attachment of camera modules to the processors for the mobile phone industry. MIPI CSI-2 version 1.01 supports upto 4 data lanes, and each lane carries 1 Gbps bandwidth. The D- PHY specification defines the physical hardware layer interface between camera and processor to facilitate fast exchange of data.
9. System On Chip (SoC): Raspberry Pi (System on Chip) SoC is ARM Based by Broadcom Technologies. The ARM processor runs from 700 Mhz to 1 Ghz. The SoC also facilitates videocore 4 GPU, and is capable for fast 3D core, openGL and supports Blueray and H.264 video playback.