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Programs to understand File handling operations.

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Programs to understand File handling operations.

File handling : File handling in C refers to the task of storing data in the form of input or output produced by running C programs in data files, namely, a text file or a binary file for future reference and analysis.File handling in C enables us to create, update, read, and delete the files stored on the local file system through our C program. The following operations can be performed on a file.

  • Creation of the new file
  • Opening an existing file
  • Reading from the file
  • Writing to the file
  • Deleting the file 

Functions of file handling :  

FunctionDescription
fopen()opens new or existing file
fprintf()write data into the file
fscanf()reads data from the file
fputc()writes a character into the file
fgetc()reads a character from file
fclose()closes the file
fseek()sets the file pointer to given position
fputw()writes an integer to file
fgetw()reads an integer from file
ftell()returns current position
rewind()sets the file pointer to the beginning of the file

How to Create a File: 

Syntax :

FILE *fp;
fp = fopen ("file_name", "mode");

fp is a file pointer which points to the type file.fopen is a standard function which is used to open a file.

  • If the file is not present on the system, then it is created and then opened.
  • If a file is already present on the system, then it is directly opened using this function.

fopen() :

Syntax : FILE *fopen( const char * filename, const char * mode );  

The fopen() function accepts two parameters:

  • The file name (string). If the file is stored at some specific location, then we must mention the path at which the file is stored. 
  • The mode in which the file is to be opened. It is a string

modes in the fopen() function.

ModeDescription
ropens a text file in read mode
wopens a text file in write mode
aopens a text file in append mode
r+opens a text file in read and write mode
w+opens a text file in read and write mode
a+opens a text file in read and write mode
rbopens a binary file in read mode
wbopens a binary file in write mode
abopens a binary file in append mode
rb+opens a binary file in read and write mode
wb+opens a binary file in read and write mode
ab+opens a binary file in read and write mode

fclose() : The fclose() function is used to close a file. The file must be closed after performing all the operations on it.

Syntax:int fclose( FILE *fp );  

Example implementing fopen() and fclose() : 

#include <stdlib.h> 

#include <stdio.h> 

void main() {

FILE *fp;

char ch;

fp  = fopen ("C:\\Users\\HP\\Desktop\\abc.txt", "r");

while ( 1 )  

{  

ch = fgetc(fp ) ;  

if ( ch == EOF )  

break ;  

printf("%c",ch) ;  

}  

fclose (fp ) ; 

}

Output : 

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fprintf() : The fprintf() function is used to write set of characters into file. It sends formatted output to a stream.

Syntax: int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...]) 

Example : 

#include <stdlib.h> 

#include <stdio.h> 

void main() {  

   FILE *fp;  

   char ch;

   fp = fopen("C:\\Users\\HP\\Desktop\\abc.txt", "w");//opening file  

   fprintf(fp, "implementation of fprintf...\n");//writing data into file  

   while ( 1 )      

   fclose(fp); 

}

fscanf() :The fscanf() function is used to read set of characters from file. It reads a word from the file and returns EOF at the end of file.

Syntax: int fscanf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...])  

Example : 

#include <stdlib.h> 

#include <stdio.h> 

void main() 

{   

  FILE *fp;  

 char buff[255];//creating char array to store data of file  

   fp = fopen("C:\\Users\\HP\\Desktop\\abc.txt", "r");  

   while(fscanf(fp, "%s", buff)!=EOF)

   {  

   printf("%s ", buff );  

   }  

   fclose(fp);  

}

Output file  abc.txt : implementation of fscanf... 

fputc() :The fputc() function is used to write a single character into file. It outputs a character to a stream.

Syntax: int fputc(int c, FILE *stream)  

Example : 

#include <stdlib.h> 

#include <stdio.h> 

void main() {   

    FILE *fp;  

    //opening file

   fp = fopen("C:\\Users\\HP\\Desktop\\abc.txt","w");  

   fputc('e',fp);//writing single character into file  

   fclose(fp);//closing file    

}

Output file  abc.txt :

e

For more file handling functions CLICK HERE

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