#loading data (corpus)
corpus = """According to consensus in modern genetics anatomically
modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa
between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.However, the earliest known
human remains in South Asia date to 30,000 years ago.
Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming
and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7,000 BCE.
At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, Pakistan, presence can be
documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly
followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle.
By 4,500 BCE, settled life had spread more widely, and began to
gradually evolve into the Indus Valley Civilization, an early
civilization of the Old world, which was contemporaneous with
Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
This civilisation flourished between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what
today is Pakistan and north-western India, and was noted for its
urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water
In early second millennium BCE persistent drought caused the
population of the Indus Valley to scatter from large urban centres
Around the same time, Indo-Aryan tribes moved into the Punjab from
regions further northwest in several waves of migration.
The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the
Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated
religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious
cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.
The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors,
and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling
their occupations impure, arose later during this period.
Towards the end of the period, around 600 BCE, after the pastoral
and nomadic Indo-Aryans spread from the Punjab into the Gangetic
plain, large swaths of which they deforested to pave way for
agriculture, a second urbanisation took place.
The small Indo-Aryan chieftaincies, or janapadas, were
consolidated into larger states, or mahajanapadas.
This urbanisation was accompanied by the rise of new ascetic
movements in Greater Magadha, including Jainism and Buddhism,
which opposed the growing influence of Brahmanism and the primacy
of rituals, presided by Brahmin priests, that had come to be
associated with Vedic religion,and gave rise to new religious